Why Hardwoods Are The Softest Woods

9 Okt 2020
296 693 Ditonton

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Not all hardwood trees have hard wood and softwoods soft wood, because these terms denote their taxonomic ancestry, not the wood's actual hardness.
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Angiosperm: a plant that has flowers and produces seeds enclosed within a carpel.
Gymnosperm: a plant that has seeds unprotected by an ovary or fruit.
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Ansell, M. P. "Wood microstructure-A cellular composite." Wood Composites. Woodhead Publishing, 2015. 3-26. doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78242-454-3.00001-9
Bjurhager, Ingela. Effects of Cell Wall Structure on Tensile Properties of Hardwood: Effect of down-regulation of lignin on mechanical performance of transgenic hybrid aspen. Diss. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:409533/FULLTEXT02.pdf
Botes, Christo, Steven D. Johnson, and Richard M. Cowling. "The birds and the bees: using selective exclusion to identify effective pollinators of African tree aloes." International Journal of Plant Sciences 170.2 (2009): 151-156.
Butterfield B.G. (1993) The structure of wood: an overview. In: Primary Wood Processing. Springer, Dordrecht. doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-8110-3_1
Chilson-Parks, Laura. "Wood in the Middle Ages." Perspectives (2015). risdmuseum.org/art-design/projects-publications/articles/wood-middle-ages
Cywa, K. Trees and shrubs used in medieval Poland for making everyday objects. Veget Hist Archaeobot 27, 111-136 (2018). doi.org/10.1007/s00334-017-0644-9
Laboratory, Forest Products. Wood Handbook: Wood As an Engineering Material. United States, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2013.
Meier, Eric. “Hardwood Anatomy.” The Wood Database, www.wood-database.com/wood-articles/hardwood-anatomy/.
Minea, Vasile. Industrial Heat Pump-Assisted Wood Drying. United States, CRC Press, 2018.
Plomion, Christophe, Grégoire Leprovost, and Alexia Stokes. "Wood formation in trees." Plant physiology 127.4 (2001): 1513-1523.
Ramage, Michael H., et al. "The wood from the trees: The use of timber in construction." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 68 (2017): 333-359.
Simm, Jonathan, and Crossman, Matt. Manual on the Use of Timber in Coastal and River Engineering. United Kingdom, Thomas Telford, 2004.
Wei-Dan Ding , Ahmed Koubaa , et al. (2008)
Relationship between wood porosity, wood density and methyl methacrylate impregnation rate, Wood Material Science &
Engineering, 3:1-2, 62-70, dx.doi.org/10.1080/17480270802607947
Wiedenhoeft, Alex. "Structure and function of wood." Wood handbook: wood as an engineering material: chapter 3. Centennial ed. General technical report FPL; GTR-190. Madison, WI: US Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, 2010: p. 3.1-3.18. 190 (2010): 3-1. www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/fplgtr/fplgtr190/chapter_03.pdf
WOOD Magazine Staff. “What Is the World's Hardest Wood?” WOOD Magazine, WOOD Magazine, 17 Jan. 2019, www.woodmagazine.com/wood-supplies/wood-species/what-is-the-worlds-hardest-wood.

  • ✅ U.S. ELECTION 2020 UPDATE: Amidst unprecedented times in the United States and around the world, it's vitally important we do our part to have an impact by voting! Learn how to vote in your state from our friends at Complexly: idworlds.info It's hard not to appreciate your tree-mendous support of MinuteEarth! Want to become our Patreon or member on IDworlds? Just visit www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth or click "JOIN". Thanks!

    MinuteEarthMinuteEarth11 hari yang lalu
    • I’m sorry but I live in the late Cretaceous period so no voting in freedom land for me

      Just An Inflatable DinosaurJust An Inflatable Dinosaur14 jam yang lalu
    • *TRUMP 2020.* I'm 99.95 sure this audience is against me, but good vid nonetheless!

      Nicolas P. CageNicolas P. Cage18 jam yang lalu
    • @Sabih Shahid If only Democrats were truly liberals who believed in democracy and free speech, and if only Republicans were truly conservatives who believed in a republic. But those choices are not available on the ballot. The choice is simple: more of the same that the Duopoly has given us for 150+ years, or vote for real changes.

      macsnafumacsnafu20 jam yang lalu
    • @macsnafu If only she was truly Libertarian.

      Sabih ShahidSabih Shahid22 jam yang lalu
    • Get back to me when there's a 'level playing field' in electoral politics, and real choices to vote for. The differences between Biden and Trump aren't really as great as many people think. At least I can vote for the Libertarian candidate Jo Jorgensen this time around.

      macsnafumacsnafuHari Yang lalu
  • Some hardwoods may be soft, but morning wood is the hardest of them all.

    Alpha WygerionAlpha Wygerion4 jam yang lalu
  • I have a hardwood every morning

    nicolas jeffrey felisminonicolas jeffrey felisminoHari Yang lalu
  • I love the rs reference, but you're missing out on the real hardest softwood, english yew, which requires 60 woodcutting and has a janka hardness of 1520 ft lbs, and the hardest hardwood, obviously the magic tree, with a janka hardness of 69420 ft lbs and requiring 80 WC

    ChoccyMilkChoccyMilkHari Yang lalu
  • Hardwood and softwood refers to the density of the wood. The terms come from a time when everyone depended on wood for heating. Higher density woods (harder) have much higher values for heating than lower density woods (softer). My family has heated with wood for ever, and we always try to get hardwoods such as ash, oak, and elm. There are woods that are deciduous but low density (soft) that burn so fast and give off so much less heat per piece that we don't bother with them despite having thousands of the trees on our property. Softwoods such as cottonwood, willow, poplar, and box elder have very little value for serious heating purposes. Most maples are good hardwood that has a lot of value as firewood or as furniture wood. Box elder is part of the maple family, but is almost worthless for anything because it is too soft. It lacks density, so the trees break in winds that don't affect real hardwoods. There are species of evergreen trees that are harder than box elder and willow. I think it's silly to think that people from an age ago would have been referring to trees as hardwood or softwood and not be referring to the actual density of the wood.

    PJ NelsonPJ NelsonHari Yang lalu
  • lol, i learned this while going to AIM to become a plane mechanic. it wasn't for me, but i remember this

    Max KimMax KimHari Yang lalu
  • The irony.

    Matthew AldenMatthew AldenHari Yang lalu
  • I've always heard hardwoods have a finer grain

    dehdeshdehdeshHari Yang lalu
  • This doesn't explain why hardwood are the softest wood.

    Alwindar LeeAlwindar Lee2 hari yang lalu
  • Also Jeffery Epstein didn't kill himself

    Luke SalazarLuke Salazar2 hari yang lalu
  • Red ceder is an excellent option for making boats as it has tremendous weight to strengthen ratio.

    knate44knate442 hari yang lalu
  • Why is everyone talking about runescape

    Rainbow the Dragon CatRainbow the Dragon Cat2 hari yang lalu
  • Wood...uh huh huh.

    Torgo1969Torgo19692 hari yang lalu
  • Why can’t I find a “hardwood”/“softwood” joke in the comments Edit: or hardness scale jokes

    Shrekky DevitoShrekky Devito2 hari yang lalu
  • Whatever animator who put Runescape in this, give that guy a raise.

    Why not DeanWhy not Dean2 hari yang lalu
  • must've been a keepsake dragon hatchet! breaking on an oak tree..

    daddyleondaddyleon3 hari yang lalu
  • Man, I thought yall didn't need clickbait. What a shame.

    IAmPattycakesIAmPattycakes3 hari yang lalu
  • Oh my god, the never-ending puns... XD

    BarefootBarefoot3 hari yang lalu
  • Why greenlands are the icelands?

    Adventure FighterAdventure Fighter3 hari yang lalu
    • The name Greenland was basically to trick people. True story!

      Phosphorus4Phosphorus417 jam yang lalu
  • 2:59 "knowing this you WOOD thing we whoud retrire the softwood hardwood dermenology by now" aw come on not the pun

    why you herewhy you here3 hari yang lalu
  • Just because you are hardwood does not mean you have to be _hard_ wood.

    ThePCguy17ThePCguy173 hari yang lalu
  • Tree trump😀😀😀😀😀😀😀😅😅😅😅😅😅😅😅😅😂😂🤣🤣😂🤣🤣🤣🤣

    Andrijana PanticAndrijana Pantic3 hari yang lalu
  • That's why hardwood trees in animal crossing drop softwood

    [Cloutmaster] Phluphyy[Cloutmaster] Phluphyy3 hari yang lalu
  • O

    Não Sei 2.0Não Sei 2.03 hari yang lalu
  • ah, that wood explain a thing or two

    Zer0 Bin0pseZer0 Bin0pse3 hari yang lalu
  • What is the Jenka number for morning wood? Next time a girl asks how hard it is, I wanna answer with this number.

    Jay PaansJay Paans3 hari yang lalu
  • “tree-mendous” 🤣😂😂 the amount of tree puns was great

    George WalkerGeorge Walker3 hari yang lalu
  • Yep hardwood is soft, same as greenland is full of ice and iceland full of green

    Meliodas samaMeliodas sama4 hari yang lalu
  • Okay but why is there a baby on the thumbnail

    Elisa La BargeElisa La Barge4 hari yang lalu
  • Eastern REd Cedar cannot be the hardest softwood. Ironwood is a softwood, and it is the hardest wood in the world.

    Gator BaitGator Bait4 hari yang lalu
    • ………which ironwood?………… ……and is it just the hardest commercially available lumber? Or…?……

      Phosphorus4Phosphorus416 jam yang lalu
  • You forgot about something else

    Orange ShirtOrange Shirt4 hari yang lalu
  • Wait, is this talking about evergreens vs deciduous trees?

    Miloh JohnsonMiloh Johnson4 hari yang lalu
  • will minuteearth make a face reviel ?

    Bilaus RobertBilaus Robert4 hari yang lalu
    • …Well…they've………basically done it before…I don't know about the whole team…

      Phosphorus4Phosphorus417 jam yang lalu
  • 👍,

    Gacheru MburuGacheru Mburu4 hari yang lalu
  • But how can redwood trees be softer than oak? How do you classify yew and magic trees? Presumably they're even harder (to cut)? And is it true that maples are more likely to contain bird nests?

    DanDan4 hari yang lalu

    game Faqih TVgame Faqih TV4 hari yang lalu
  • This wasn't the case in my community growing up, for example maple trees sent considered a hardwood. I wasn't a lumberjack or anything special but did my fair share curing firewood and buying it from people. Vedio was plesnt tho and I like your content!

    corey ostrandercorey ostrander4 hari yang lalu
  • Idk why the word Palo Santo sounded so satisfying lol.

    VolcanoVolcano5 hari yang lalu
  • The different from hardwood and softwood don't quote me but I'm pretty sure Hardwood had super spiky seeds and the softwood does normal seeds it's not the wood itself

    Litt1e Penguin5Litt1e Penguin55 hari yang lalu
    • This is just a fast learning without looking at video*

      Litt1e Penguin5Litt1e Penguin55 hari yang lalu
  • Wy wife would know about this ;]

    Rio SolRio Sol5 hari yang lalu
  • As a bowmaker I click without a throught

    Historical ArcheryHistorical Archery5 hari yang lalu
  • Wow. New animation?

    Bella's VidsBella's Vids5 hari yang lalu
  • So basically we should blame scientists for relating it to leaf type instead of listening to the loggers who could just say “welp this one takes a fuck ton shorter time to chop so this is a softwood”

    Fletcher BullockFletcher Bullock5 hari yang lalu
  • Great how the UK is represented by someone wearing the doctor who scarf 😂

    jona vonkjona vonk5 hari yang lalu
    • Oh that's not meant to be a representation of the UK, Julián is just a Doctor Who fan in the States.

      MinuteEarthMinuteEarth5 hari yang lalu
  • As a Forester, I am happy that you provided the right information 😁😁

    Jans Nexus ReyesJans Nexus Reyes5 hari yang lalu
  • Now im looking at trees different

    ResidentEvil302 Ricancuban215usaResidentEvil302 Ricancuban215usa5 hari yang lalu
  • never really been interested in trees but i was so surprised and impressed from the quality of the information! Everything i could want in a definite explanation and so neat it really made my nerd senses tingle.

    ThefubmonkeyThefubmonkey5 hari yang lalu
  • "I'm gonna go out on a limb here." I see what you did there. XD

    Walt of All TradesWalt of All Trades5 hari yang lalu
  • Clearly not enough research was done here. The “hardest softwood” is not eastern red cedar. I don’t know what is, but heart pine is significantly harder.

    Ender of TimeEnder of Time5 hari yang lalu
    • @MinuteEarth I will allow myself to be corrected. It would appear that a certain resource may not be a particularly great one. I was looking into wood hardnesses earlier this summer and I apparently misremembered this information, but I will not be outdone. A far more reliable source lists ocote pine and Sumatran pine at 950 lbf. Your mileage with your source may vary.

      Ender of TimeEnder of Time5 hari yang lalu
    • Heart pine is not a species of tree, it refers to the heartwood of pine trees. The heartwood of all trees is the densest, and therefore hardest part of the tree. From a quick search, it seems it most often refers to the heartwood of the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), which has a Janka number of 870 lbf, very close to the eastern red cedar ( Juniperus virginiana, 900 lbf), although slightly lower.

      MinuteEarthMinuteEarth5 hari yang lalu
  • This is an flawless example of why scientist shouldn't recategorize plants by their genetics when they where named by their function. Dont blame a language for this nonsense.

    davekacheldavekachel5 hari yang lalu
  • are you a STAR WARS FAN?

  • "I'm going to go out on a limb here"

    John BianchiJohn Bianchi5 hari yang lalu
  • And we once lived among the dinosaurs

    The great taco manThe great taco man5 hari yang lalu
  • Actually the universe has only existed around 100000 years

    The great taco manThe great taco man5 hari yang lalu
  • Hard... wood... HOW ARE THERE NO SEX JOKES

    Elliott PurserElliott Purser5 hari yang lalu
    • ……But…there kinda were… …How did you knot see them…… You mean in the video? Come on………

      Phosphorus4Phosphorus417 jam yang lalu
  • well...... F#!& @ ENGLISH.... ...sorry Im just angry of english langue rn cause of one of my teachers....

    Xavier John LoroXavier John Loro5 hari yang lalu
  • I needed this video. Seriously been wondering about wood properties in terms of sustainable forestry and timber

    O KO K6 hari yang lalu
  • that means soft wood is hard wood?

    SiwakornProArmSiwakornProArm6 hari yang lalu
  • Please just cut all these wood jokes you are trying way too hard

    It's EZIt's EZ6 hari yang lalu
  • Which app you use for animation??

    B AbhishekB Abhishek6 hari yang lalu
    • Adobe After Effects

      MinuteEarthMinuteEarth5 hari yang lalu
  • You had me until Jenga...

    aomanchutubeaomanchutube6 hari yang lalu
  • I loved your spanish pronunciation on Palo Santo!

    Eljosel JimenezEljosel Jimenez6 hari yang lalu
  • highly anecdotal observation, but I've noticed I come across a lot more recently fallen trees in the hardwood forests where I live now, than in the softwood forests where I grew up. I've been wondering if it's something to do with wood hardness, or forest maintenance, or just my own attention

    Matthew ScanduraMatthew Scandura6 hari yang lalu
  • I thought hard wood was the hardest wood now I know it is the soft wood.Thank you for teaching me 😇

    •Miss Weirdo• 柳俊影•Miss Weirdo• 柳俊影6 hari yang lalu
  • We shouldn't have retired the softwood/hardwood terminology, that has a place in woodworking as an immediately practical distinction. What we *should* do is get rid of the absurd association with the genetic classification.

    Daniel EarlyDaniel Early6 hari yang lalu
  • I heard two tree puns. It was very sappy

    Jakob ThompsonJakob Thompson6 hari yang lalu
  • The hardest softwood is probably Pacific Yew, with a hardness of ~1600 to ~1700 lbf. That's harder than over 50% of hardwoods and as hard as hickory. Eastern Red Cedar (ERC, _Juniperus virginiana_ ) isn't even the hardest juniper, nevermind softwood, with the Alligator Juniper being 1160lbf; in the range of most oaks. Junipers are unusual in having unusually hard wood for gymnosperms. Interestingly the hard junipers, and yews, follow the hardness to density ratio of angiosperms while the soft ones follow the hardness to density ratio of gymnosperms. Angiosperms get harder with smaller increases in density than most gymnosperms. However, there is only data on a few junipers but the ones there is data on are mostly hard. It is interesting that almost all of the hardest gymnosperms occur in the clade that consists of Taxaceae and Cupressaceae Also ERC's growth rate isn't even that slow. It has a medium growth rate like some faster growing pines but slows when they gets older. It is harder than significantly slower growing gymnosperms. Junipers--like ERC--also have highly developed animal distribution methods which may explain their species richness and wide distribution. Edit: fixed italics and added more information

    FlightlessChickenFlightlessChicken6 hari yang lalu
  • Can't help but chuckle whenever he says hard wood. I need to grow up.

    GrandsomeGrandsome6 hari yang lalu
  • Ironic.

    a random mana random man6 hari yang lalu
  • Video about how hardwood isn't hard wood, and people making jokes about "hard wood".

    AndurilAnduril6 hari yang lalu
  • We’ve been tricked, we’ve been backstabbed, and we’ve been, quite possibly, bamboozled.

    Zhoutong YangZhoutong Yang6 hari yang lalu
    • BAMBOOzled?

      Phosphorus4Phosphorus416 jam yang lalu
  • Thanks for the English lesson. We call them leafwood and pinewood in Russian.

    Sergei BurtsevSergei Burtsev6 hari yang lalu
  • Odd I guess just being a bit of an outdoorsman I only would call a tree hardwood if it was hard to cut down. I wouldn't even call Aspen a hardwood. I mean I can hew an Aspen with very little effort but the Live Oak in my parent's yard... no. There is no chance I could cut through it, I would honestly rather try to cut Iron.

    n0etic Foxn0etic Fox6 hari yang lalu
  • This is a classic example of over-educated cosmopolitans talking about something they have no clue about because they don't build anything useful. Balsa is a softwood, and if you told me puffy carving blocks are a hardwood "well ackshually", because of some taxonomists arbitrary catalogue I wouldn't want to hear it.

    Dev SDev S6 hari yang lalu
    • Hardwood and softwood is not a scientific term. It's a term used more by industry than anyone else Edit: also angiosperm gymnosperm distinction is in no way arbitrary

      FlightlessChickenFlightlessChicken6 hari yang lalu
  • If hardwood is not hard wood, then the scientific definition is _wrong_ . Scientists should pick another term, and leave us normal people to use the word correctly, ie as intended.

    rob28803rob288037 hari yang lalu
    • Hardwood and softwood is *not* a scientific term. Angiosperm and gymnosperm is. Hardwood and softwood is more of an industry term

      FlightlessChickenFlightlessChicken6 hari yang lalu
  • I know this bc of matpat

    ivan yuriivan yuri7 hari yang lalu
  • I’ll bet the words simply changed after we moved from axes to saws that gunked up when the wood was softer when wetter

    Liam YorkLiam York7 hari yang lalu
  • I LOVE THE OSRS/RuneScape reference!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    RsNewOldRsNewOld7 hari yang lalu
  • What are ironwood trees? How do they compare? I've seen ratings higher than 4390 LBF ... For example, Australian Buloke rates 5060 LBF. www.hitchcockandking.co.uk/h-k-news/top-10-hardest-woods-world/

    AvangionQAvangionQ7 hari yang lalu

    Corey B.Corey B.7 hari yang lalu
  • 2:29 more puns

    Giorgi OrbeladzeGiorgi Orbeladze7 hari yang lalu
    • Treemendus

      Giorgi OrbeladzeGiorgi Orbeladze7 hari yang lalu
  • The resin-hardened heartwood of longleaf and slash pines is probably harder than any hardwood. You don't get that from fresh sawn live trees but the dead standing ones that the sapwood has rotted off of are almost as hard as a rock.

    Michael AdlerMichael Adler7 hari yang lalu
  • Almost informational, not enough detail.

    craig englecraig engle7 hari yang lalu
  • My wood can be hard or soft. Just depends who's in front of me

    Elie The ProfElie The Prof7 hari yang lalu
  • Is the hardest softwood harder than the softest hardwood?

    hawkturkeyhawkturkey7 hari yang lalu
  • I did not miss that old school RuneScape reference there. Nice.

    live4him4evalive4him4eva7 hari yang lalu
  • The hardwood softwood classification as it exists is very helpful for mycology as most softwood has antifungal sap so most mushrooms that grow around then are symbiotic while mushrooms that grow around hardwoods eat the decaying material.

    Cameron MorenoCameron Moreno7 hari yang lalu
  • dude cut an ent and broke his d axe...

    Michael FortierMichael Fortier7 hari yang lalu
  • I had to rewind the video to make sure that the long-lasting campfire wasn't a field of lava caused by the fire engulfing the person sleeping

    Nathanael NewtonNathanael Newton7 hari yang lalu
  • I would like to point out, that this is probably problem in English, but in Czech hardwood means only that the wood is hard. We call angiosperms "krytosemené" meaning that they cover their seeds.

    Vít SkotákVít Skoták7 hari yang lalu

    Elizabeth SetlowElizabeth Setlow7 hari yang lalu
  • Balsa is a hardwood???

    Angela HsiaoAngela Hsiao7 hari yang lalu
  • *"That’s right. Red wood. With a space in the middle. Wood that is red. You can’t touch me, Carrots, I've been doing this since I was born."*

    Queen LionQueen Lion7 hari yang lalu
  • WOW! It's almost like scientific and colloquial categories were derived from different sources! The designation still has uses in other fields, so I doubt it's going anywhere any time soon.

    BIGgouramiBIGgourami7 hari yang lalu
  • "leading to TREE-mendous species diversity" :-P

    Timofei GerasimovTimofei Gerasimov7 hari yang lalu
  • Anyone else think of Animal Crossing?

    biohazard737biohazard7377 hari yang lalu
  • Life is a beautiful thing and you should cherish the moments of nature like this one

    the Dark Angels Space Marinethe Dark Angels Space Marine7 hari yang lalu
  • 4 minute earth 🌍 🌎 🌏

    Mali draws :DMali draws :D7 hari yang lalu
  • because they hide their true emotions

    Amad FishAmad Fish7 hari yang lalu
  • You are the perfect opposite of the wood you are named

    General Memelord 69General Memelord 697 hari yang lalu